Dog breeds – Before and After
To find out how the dog breeds were, we have to go back to 1873, at which point the Kennel Club, the UK’s breeding club, standardized the morphology of dog breeds for the first time. However, we can also find old works of art in which the dogs of the time are shown.
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In this article by YourCatCareguide we will show the dog breeds of old and now, a very shocking and fundamental time tour to understand why the present breeds suffer so many health problems or with it is possible that the dogs are the only species with so varied morphology . Discover 20 dog breeds before and after , and be amazed!
1. Carlino or Pug
In the image on the left we can see Trump, a Pug by William Hogarth in 1745. At that time the breed was not standardized but was already well-known and popular. Of course we do not observe the muzzle as flat as the current one and the legs are much longer. We can even estimate that it is larger than the current pug.
Pugs currently suffer from various health problems related to morphology such as soft palate, entropion and patellar dislocation, as well as epilepsy and Legg-Calve Pethers disease, which can lead to loss of upper thigh muscle and pain limiting the movement of the dog. It is likely to suffer heat strokes and suffocates with regularity.
2. Scottish terrier
The Schottish terrier no doubt has undergone one of the most drastic changes with regard to morphology. We can see the shape of the head much more elongated and a drastic shortening of the legs . The oldest photograph dates back to 1859.
They usually suffer from various types of cancer (bladder, bowel, stomach, skin and breast) as well as are susceptible to Von Willebrand’s disease, which causes abnormal bleeding and bleeding. They may also suffer from spinal problems .
3. Cowboy of Berne
In the image we can see a Bernese Horse of 1862 painted by Benno Rafael Adam, an important painter of animals of century XIX. In this realistic painting we observed a cowboy with the cranial region much less marked and rounder.
It usually suffers from diseases such as dysplasia (of elbow and hip), histiocytosis, osteochondritis dissecans and is also susceptible to undergo gastric torsion.
4. Old English Shepherd or Bobtail
The attributes of the Bobtail or Old English Shepherd have changed greatly from the 1915 photograph to the current standard. We can mainly observe that the long hair , the shape of the ears and the cranial region were enhanced.
Hair was undoubtedly one of the factors that most influenced your health, since it is susceptible to otitis and to suffer allergy. It may also be affected by hip dysplasia and other diseases related to joints and mobility.
5. Bedlington terrier
The morphology of the bedlington terrier is undoubtedly one of the most striking. He looked for something like a sheep, which ended in an anomalous form of the skull. The photograph shows a copy of 1881 (left) that has nothing to do with the current one.
It is susceptible to several diseases, such as heart murmur, epiphora, retinal dysplasia, cataracts and a high incidence in kidney and liver problems .
It is amazing to observe the official description of the 100 year old Bloodhound . As we can see, the wrinkles, which are now a distinctive feature of the breed, have been greatly potentiated. The ears also seem much longer nowadays.
This breed has a very high rate of gastrointestinal diseases and dermal problems in the eyes and ears. They are also likely to suffer heat stroke. Finally we highlight the age of mortality of the breed, which is approximately between 8 and 12 years.
7. English Bull Terrier
The English Bull Terrier is undoubtedly one of the most popular current breeds, whether it be the standard or the miniature. The morphology of these dogs has changed radically since the time of photography, in 1915, until now. We can observe an important deformation of the skull as well as a thicker and more muscular body.
Bull terriers have a great tendency to suffer skin problems , as well as heart, kidney, deafness and patellar dislocation. They may also develop eye problems.
8. Poodle or Poodle
The Poodle or Poodle was one of the most popular races in the beauty pageants. The morphology changes selected it to bear several sizes, as well as to show an especially sweet and manageable character.
It can suffer epilepsy, gastric twist, Addison’s disease, cataracts and dysplasia, especially in giant specimens.
9. Doberman pinscher
In the 1915 image we can see a doberman pinscher that is thicker than the present one and with a shorter muzzle. The current standard is much more stylized, however we are worried that the amputation of its extremities is still being accepted.
You are very prone to suffer from spinal problems , gastric twisting, hip dysplasia or heart problems. He may also suffer from Wobbler syndrome, which is a neurological deficit and disability, being more frequent in females than in males.
The Boxer is one of the most popular and beloved dogs, however it has also undergone a huge transformation. In this photograph we can see Flocky, the first recorded Boxer of which we are aware. Still, the photograph may not reveal it, but the shape of the jaw was much modified, as did the lower lips, much more fallen.
The Boxer puppy is likely to suffer from all types of cancer as well as heart problems. He also has a tendency to gastric twisting and usually has dizziness in the face of excessive heat and breathing problems due to his flattened muzzle. They also have allergies.
11. Wire Fox Terrier
It is curious to observe this portrait of a Fox terrier by the wire of 1886. Unlike the current one, it has a much less curly hair , less elongated muzzle and a totally different body position.
Although the incidence of health problems is not as high as in Boxer, for example, they have frequent problems such as epilepsy, deafness, thyroid problems and digestive dysfunctions among others.
12. German Shepherd
The German Shepherd is one of the most abused races in beauty contests. So much so that there are currently two types of German Shepherd, the beauty and the work, the first being the most harmed, since the second still bears on the model of 1909 that we observe in the image.
Currently his main health problem is hip dysplasia , although he may also suffer from elbow dysplasia, digestive and ocular problems. The picture we show is from the winner of a 2016 beauty pageant, a dog that probably in a few anis will not be able to walk due to the deformation so large in his spine. Still, the “current standard” requires the German Shepherd dogs to present this totally abnormal curvature.
The Pekingese is one of the most popular dogs in China since, at some point in history, they were considered sacred animals and lived with royalty. As with the previous races we can observe a significant morphological change, the flattened nose, the rounded head and the amplitude of its nasal cavities being evident.
Although the Pekinese may suffer from health problems such as respiratory problems (stenotic or soft palate), various eye problems (trichiasis, cataracts, progressive atrophy retinal or disticyriasis) as well as mobility dysfunctions, mainly due to patellar luxation or degeneration of intervertebral discs.
14. English Bulldog
The English Bulldog has undergone a radical change , perhaps a lot more than other breeds we have named on this list. We can see how the structure of his skull has deformed from 1790 to the present day. His body was also selected in search of a stocky and muscular profile.
It is probably one of the breeds that most hereditary problems presents . He usually suffers from hip dysplasia, skin problems, difficulty breathing, predisposition to gastric twisting and eye problems.
15. Cavalier king Charles spaniel
The Cavalier king Charles spaniel is one of the most popular dogs in the UK. We can observe part of the young Carlos I in the photograph of the left, posing together with his favorite dog. The Cavalier king charles spaniel was the exclusive dog of the nobility and the maidens used to put it on their lap in the winter to not get cold. King Charles was one of the first to begin selecting specimens to achieve a concrete and desired morphology, based simply on the “beauty of the dog”.
William Youatt, a veterinarian specializing in diseases, was one of the first critics: ” King Charles’s race is currently materially altered for evil.” The muzzle is very short, and the front is ugly and prominent, like a bulldog’s. is twice its original size and has an expression of stupidity with which the dog’s character corresponds with accuracy . “
Dr. William was not mistaken, nowadays this race is prone to suffer many diseases, among them the hereditary syringomyelia disease , which is tremendously painful. They are also likely to suffer from prolapse in the mitral valve, heart failure, retinal dysplasia or cataracts. In fact, 50% of dogs of this breed die from heart problems and the last cause of death is old age.
16. Saint Bernard
The St. Bernard is one of the most famous cowboy dogs, perhaps because of its appearance in Beethoven , a well-known film. In the picture on the left we can see a dog less thick, with a smaller head and less marked features.
Genetic selection has turned him into a dog prone to dilated cardiomyopathy as well as obesity and dysplasia. It is also likely to suffer heat stroke and stomach twist, so it is not advisable to perform active exercise with it.
17. Shar Pei
The Shar Pei is one of the races with more demand nowadays, but as with the English Bull Terrier, the exaggeration of their attributes is causing the breed is prone to many health problems. The well-known wrinkles that it gives give it an unmistakable aspect, but also malaise and several diseases.
The Schnauzer is one of the most popular and beloved breeds today. We have three types: the miniature, the standard and the giant. We can observe the change that has had since the photograph of 1915. The body has become more compact, the muzzle more elongated and the characteristics of the hair, such as the beard, are much more pronounced.
It is likely to suffer schnauzer comedo syndrome , which consists of a type of dermatitis that usually affects the digestion of the animal, causing allergies. It also has pulmonary stenosis and vision problems, which are sometimes related to the fur of the eyebrows.
19. West Highland white terrier
The West Highland White Terrier, also known as “Westy”, comes from Scotland and although it was once a fox and badger hunting dog, nowadays it is one of the most beloved and appreciated companion dogs .
In the photographs of 1899 we can observe two specimens quite different from the current standard, since they do not have as dense a coat as we know them and even their morphological structure is quite remote.
They usually suffer from carniomandibular osteopathy , abnormal growth of the jaw, as well as leukodystrophy, Legg-Calve-Pethes disease, toxicose or patellar dislocation.
20. English Setter
In the English Setter we can clearly observe the exaggeration of the characteristic attributes of the breed from 1902 until now. The length of the muzzle and the length of the neck were increased, as well as the presence of hair on the chest, paws, abdomen and tail.
Like all breeds previously mentioned is likely to suffer from various diseases such as various allergies , elbow dysplasia, hypothyroidism. Their life expectancy is between 11 and 12 years.
Why do all these races suffer so many health problems?
Breed dogs, especially those of pedigree , were crossed for generations between siblings, parents and children and even grandparents and grandchildren. At present it is not a usual or desirable practice, however, even some respected breeders include the cross between grandparents and grandchildren. The reason is simple: it seeks to enhance the attributes of the breed besides not losing the lineage in the future puppies.
We use information from the BBC’s Pedigree Dogs Exposed documentary.
The consequences of inbreeding are evident, evidence of this is society’s huge rejection of this practice. In ancient Egypt, concretely in the eighteenth dynasty, members of royalty were shown to be more likely to perpetuate hereditary diseases, to exacerbate existing hereditary diseases, juvenile mortality, and eventually infertility.
As already mentioned, not all breeders carry out these practices , but we can not but say that they are customary in some cases. For this reason it is highly recommended that you inform yourself properly before bringing a dog home, especially if you are thinking of turning to a breeder.