Orbitofrontal cortex: parts, functions and characteristics
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The human being enjoys a large amount of complex cognitive abilities that allow him to adjust to a great extent to the environment in which he is located and at the moment in which he lives. He is able to plan, prepare for action, establish strategies or inhibit his own behavior. All this is very useful both in nature and in society, as for example in the exchange or communication between different people and in different contexts.
It is not the same for example to interact with another person in the context of a conflict or a misfortune that in a party in a nightclub, to give an example, and be able to distinguish it and manage behavior to suit each situation requires complex processes. Processes that do not appear from nothing, but that are due to the action of different brain nuclei. One of the most important in this sense and which is also key to explain much of our personality is the orbitofrontal cortex, which is the subject of this article .
Orbitofrontal cortex: description and location
It receives the name of orbitofrontal cortex a region of the cerebral cortex which is part of the prefrontal cortex and which has great importance in the regulation of social behavior, decision making and the inhibition of behaviors. This cortex is located in the frontal lobe, being in both cerebral hemispheres and being located approximately at the height of the orbits of the eyes (which is also the reason of its name).
The importance of this area is great, being involved in a large number of functions and even in the establishment of what we call personality . This is due in addition to his own performance to that we are before a part of the brain highly connected with a large number of brain regions. Among its multiple connections are those that go to the limbic system (especially the amygdala), the insula, the motor cortex, the thalamus the hypothalamus or the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex and most of sensory areas. We are also facing one of the areas of the brain that takes longer to develop, not completing its formation until adulthood.
This brain region also has some historical importance because it is the area that was injured in the first known and documented case of a subject with brain lesions in the front of the brain who lived to tell about it: Phineas Gage. This young man, to whom an iron bar crossed the orbitofrontal while manipulating explosives managed to survive the injury, but later on it would begin to manifest severe alterations that would complicate its existence (hostility and aggressiveness, personality changes). , inability to plan …) until you lose everything. The study of this case would allow us to begin to visualize and investigate the importance and functions of the prefrontal region of said brain region.
Main functions of this brain region
We have previously commented that the orbitofrontal cortex is of great importance for the brain. human, being in fact fundamental for to allow the adaptation of the human being to its natural and social environment as well as to carry out complex mental actions and future plans. His brain connections are many, being involved in a lot of processes. Some of the best known and explored are the following:
1. Regulation of social behavior
One of the most known functions of the orbitofrontal cortex and the one we mentioned in the introduction is to help regulate social behavior. This is, thanks to the orbitofrontal cortex we are able to adjust our actions and words to the situations, people and types of interaction that we are having at the present time. Also allows to assess social norms .
2. Behavioral inhibition
Another key function in which the orbitofrontal cortex is fundamental is in the inhibition of behavior. That is, thanks to this brain region (among others) we are able not to do the first thing that comes to mind, or to change our behavior as we are doing it to adapt to the circumstances.
3. Implication in the personality
It can not be said that the personality lies solely in the prefrontal cortex, but the truth is that it has been observed that the alteration of this brain region can have serious repercussions on the way of being of a being able to totally vary his way of behaving and reacting to stimuli.
4. Emotional management and aggressiveness
Something in part linked to the above aspects and derived largely from their connections with the limbic system is the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex with emotional management, especially in relation to the control of responses defensive and aggressive. It is therefore an area that allows to show alert to threat stimuli.
5. Retribution-punishment and learning systems
Studies conducted in relation to the orbitofrontal cortex have shown that this region of the prefrontal, especially with respect to its medial areas, are related to the sensitivity and the learning of the relationship between behavior and reinforcement . Its more lateral areas do the same with the behavior-punishment relationship. In addition, it allows the existence of sensitivity towards one or the other, something that is linked to our future choices of behavior.
6. Integration of the senses-experience information
Although it was already suspected that there was an involvement by the orbitofrontal cortex in this, recent research has shown that this cortex is activated and allows to integrate the current sensory information with previously accumulated information of the previous moments .
7. Decision-making analysis
Directly related to the above, it has been identified that the orbitofrontal cortex has a great implication when making decisions, given the integration of the information from the previous point and its analysis. This allows us to anticipate the choice of behavioral response that we are going to carry out although this may vary depending on the new experiences.
8. Motivation and planning
Another area in which participation of the orbitofrontal cortex has been seen is in the ability to motivate especially at the time of having initiative toward or maintaining behavior. It also influences behavior planning.
What problems can arise from his injury?
Given some of the multiple functions of this brain region and the importance of these in our day to day, it is easy to imagine the type of difficulties that can lead to his injury.
It is common for lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex to derive in the appearance of aggressive behaviors, limitations in the ability to bond with others and have empathy social untying and disobedience of social norms, apathy, inability to generate, initiate or maintain plans and a high level of disinhibition that include difficulties to control their impulses (including addictions, sexual activity, food or aggression) and that can lead to legal problems. In fact, there is a specific syndrome that refers to the appearance of these symptoms due to brain injury: the orbitofrontal syndrome.
The lesions themselves may appear due to different types of injuries, such as for head injuries, lacerations (such as Phineas). Gage), presence of brain tumors or infections or cerebrovascular accidents.
- Bechara, A., Damasio, H, Damasio, AR (2000). Emotion, decision-making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cereb. Cortex, 10: 295-307.
- Kandel, E.R .; Schwartz, J.H .; Jessell, T.M. (2001). Principles of Neuroscience. Madrid: McGraw Hill
- Nogueira, R., Abolafia, J.M., Drugowitsch, J., Balaguer-Ballester, E., Sánchez-Vives, M.V. & Moreno-Bote, R. (2017). Lateral orbitofrontal cortex anticipates choices and integrates prior with current information. Nature Communications, 8.